Geography Fieldwork

A Level

Data and evidence

2. Data and evidence

A geographical investigation involves the gathering of primary and secondary data, which may be qualitative or quantitative.


A set of values, recorded and interpreted to produce information.


Facts and information used as the grounds for belief or disbelief.

Primary data

Data you have collected yourself, such as pebble measurements, questionnaire responses and sensory maps.

Secondary data

Data collected by someone other than yourself. It includes published data (such as census results and records of rainfall), historical data (such as old photos) and data collected by other students.

Quantitative data

Data that records quantities (e.g. numbers, sizes or frequencies).

Qualitative data

Data that records subjective qualities (e.g. opinions, attitudes and beliefs).